Forensic Anthropology: An Uncharted Tool in Criminal Investigation
Graduate, GH Raisoni Law College, Nagpur, India
Volume II – Issue I, 2021
This paper deals with the intersection of criminal law and science. Our provisions as contained in the code of criminal procedure and evidence have been amended repeatedly but the same have not kept up with the latest developments. Science and technology has developed at an extreme rate since the end of 20th century may it be fingerprints or DNA. The science dealt in the essay originates from archaeology, which branched into anthropology and eventually gave birth to forensic anthropology. The applications of forensic anthropology are wide and not only in the cases of mass disasters or mass grave but is also an important tool for cases such as missing persons, kidnapping or even murder. Any crime has the elements of a victim, mens rea, actus rea and the perpetrator. Forensic anthropology helps in identifying the victims ascertain the nature of injuries helpful in the establishment of the concept of actus and mens rea. The science is like any other expert evidence and the same can be found applicable to conclude criminal investigation. This essay provides a new avenue in criminal investigation to take help from forensic anthropology to aid the investigation. Cases in our countries that have actually used this science are a few and the number is alarmingly low. The science uses the various biological factors and has very low error rate thereby affirming the possibility of its usage. Though it cannot be stated that science is infallible it has its own errors and limitations, which is covered in this essay. The main aim of the essay is to open the minds of readers into the possibility of using forensic anthropology in criminal investigation.
Keywords: Forensic Anthropology, Criminal Investigation, Identity, Expert Evidence